Understand: Vulnerable groups and climate adaptation planning
Introduction: Vulnerable groups and climate adaptation planning
This module will help you understand how climate change affects the most vulnerable people. It provides a tool, developed by CARE, for assessing how climate change affects people with different gender identities differently. It addresses the ways inequalities can impact resilience and demonstrates the need for inclusive climate action.
What will I learn in this module?
By the end of the module, you will:
Understand the links between climate change, poverty and gender.
Understand how climate change impacts people with different gender
Have gained sound basic knowledge about facilitating a climate
vulnerability analysis for local climate adaptation planning.
The below infographic provides a summary of the key content in this module:
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Climate change, poverty and gender in Africa
Climate change risks and impacts are highly diverse and context specific. Different groups have different levels of vulnerability and capacity within and across populations and communities. Differences in gender, social status, wealth, ethnicity, natural resource base, and religion, among others, all affect people’s ability to adapt and are important aspects to understand and work with.
The extent to which adaptation actions are effective in helping households and communities adapt to climate change depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of the people targeted by the adaptation actions. These characteristics include age, gender, income and where they live. Most adaptation actions try to incorporate these. In this section, we explore gender to understand what it means, how it intersects with poverty, and how it affects adaptation.
Gender is a social construct. It defines what it means to be a man, woman, boy or girl, gender non-conforming, masculine or feminine in a society. Everyone has specific roles, status and expectations within households, communities and cultures that define their gender roles.
Gender roles vary within cultures and change over time.
Gender relates to, but is different from sex, which refers to the different biological and physiological characteristics of females, males, and intersex persons, such as chromosomes, hormones, and reproductive organs.
Gender inequality is one of the root causes of poverty. Climate change, in turn, is making poverty worse. This means that, for many women and girls living in poverty, the chances of achieving a better life are threatened by a double injustice: climate change and gender inequality.
Differences between gender equality, inequality and equity.
Gender equality is the recognition that different genders have different needs and priorities and that all genders should experience equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and be able to contribute to, and benefit from, national, political, economic, social and cultural development.
Gender inequality acknowledges that people of different genders are not equal. Differences arise from psychology, perceptions, attitudes and cultural norms and beliefs.
Gender equity is the process of being fair to different genders. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be employed to compensate for disadvantages that prevent the different genders from operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.
Gender and poverty in Africa: women and girls bear the brunt.
Due to gender inequality, women are more likely to be poor than men. For every 100 men, aged between 25 and 34, living in extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, there are 127 women.
In sub-Saharan Africa, boys are more likely to complete secondary school than girls. This means that girls are less likely to transition to formal employment.
In sub-Saharan Africa, where most of the world’s poorest live, the number of women and girls living in extremely poor households is expected to increase from 249 million to 283 million between 2021 and 2030. (Central and southern Asia will also see a resurgence of extreme poverty.)
When disaster strikes, women and children are 14 times more likely than men to die. Of the 230,000 people killed in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, 70% were women.iv Gender differences are directly linked to women’s economic and social rights. In societies where women and men enjoy equal rights, disasters have caused similar death rates in both sexes. These discrepancies are due to gender inequalities. Men and boys receive preferential treatment during rescue efforts and, following disasters, both women and girls suffer more from shortages of food and economic resources.
Following a disaster, women are more likely than men to be victims of domestic and sexual violence. They even avoid using emergency shelters for fear of being sexually assaulted.
Fetching water is often the responsibility of women. It has a disproportionate impact on women’s mental and physical health, as well as their income, since they have limited time to engage in other productive activities.
Climate change impacts women and men differently
For women and men, vulnerability to climate change can be a result of gender roles. There are gendered differences in responsibilities, household labor, how people use their time, and food security. There are also differences when it comes to access to, and control over, land, secure housing, money, information, credit, education and health – all of which are not readily accessible to women.viii Women are also more likely to be subjected to violence.
Social norms compound these constraints by restricting women’s freedom of movement, choice and voice. Water, energy and food shortages, caused in part by climate change, result in time-consuming labor as well as increased costs for women and girls because they have to travel further and pay more to collect these resources.
Women are often responsible for gathering water, food, and fuel, along with subsistence farming, caregiving, and cleaning. Most of these are made more challenging by climate change.
In rural Mali, for example, water scarcity is a growing challenge for women who often need to walk long distances to collect water. The cost of water during the dry season in these areas is 20–40 times more than in Mali’s major cities.
Case studies from Ghana and Uganda show that one of the most significant social impacts of environmental stress in communities that rely on farming is that women’s work becomes more intense and poor households become poorer. This means the impacts of climate change will add additional burdens on women’s time. Already, women in rural areas are taking on more agricultural work as men migrate to cities in search of work.
While climate change affects women disproportionately, actions that empower women can reverse poverty and unlock effective climate change solutions.
Age also impacts gender inequalities
Besides sex, age also determines how gender inequalities are generated and how they impact different groups. Age and sex interact to create complexities in gender inequalities that need to be recognized and addressed when working on climate change adaptation.
For example, young people are likely to be excluded from adaptation activities, governance and policies due to their age. Some societies assume that they are either too young or lack the knowledge to engage in issues that affect their lives.
In spaces where young people do have some agency, young women are unlikely to be represented. In certain communities, it is assumed that young women do not have the capacity or interest to engage in decision making about things that affect them. Instead, it is common that decision making about issues that affect young people is left to the elders, or young men.
Climate change and gender: a double injustice
When thinking about climate justice, it is important to recognize the intersectionality of justice issues.
Intersectionality refers to how different social categorizations, such as age, gender and race, apply to groups and create systems that determine discrimination, inequalities and therefore vulnerability to climate change. Simply put, the way these social categorizations interact determines how society treats people that belong to them. This affects how different people experience the impacts of climate change.
For example, in certain communities, younger women or girls are more likely than older women in the same community to be assigned labor-intensive tasks. They may spend their time collecting water and firewood instead of going to school or doing jobs that generate income. This keeps them in a vulnerable position.
Globally, gender inequality is a root cause of poverty. Climate change, in turn, is making poverty worse and exacerbating unequal relations between women and men that have existed for generations. This means that, for many women and girls living in poverty, the chances of achieving a better life are threatened by a double injustice: climate change and gender inequality.
Women and girls must play a central role in responding to the climate crisis
While women and girls in many regions are hardest hit by the climate crisis, they also play a central role in developing creative and effective climate change solutions. Women and girls cannot be left on the sidelines. They must be supported to play an active role in climate change adaptation in their communities.
At the same time, women’s meaningful participation in climate decision-making and negotiations needs to increase nationally and globally. Governments need to aim for gender parity, ensure that more women take leadership roles in government, and engage with women’s rights organizations on the frontlines of the climate crisis.
CARE’s Gender Equality Framework
Advancing gender equality to support climate change adaptation requires approaches that increase the capacity of women, girls and other vulnerable groups. These approaches need to build agency, change power relations, and transform the social structures that lead to gender-based discrimination and vulnerability.
Men and boys need to be included in processes that challenge the norms that inform gender inequalities. To inform this approach, CARE uses a Gender Equality Framework (Figure 2). This framework acknowledges that approaches to empower women and girls must include engagement with men, boys and people of all/diverse genders.
A useful tool for understanding gendered vulnerability to inform local adaptation planning
To plan effective adaptation actions, it is important to use scientific climate information. However, the people living in affected areas hold valuable knowledge, about the climate and how it affects different people. They need to be consulted to inform and influence local policy.
The CVCA helps those developing adaptation actions to gather community-level information and broader-level information (territorial, regional, national) to gain a locally specific understanding of vulnerability to climate change and what capacity already exists to cope with it.
The tool pays close attention to gender, ecosystem and governance issues. By exploring gender inequalities in the local context, the CVCA facilitates analysis of the gender-specific barriers, opportunities and options for increasing resilience through gender-responsive approaches to adaptation planning and implementation.
How to use the CVCA
The CVCA Handbook guides you through the process of doing a CVCA. By following the handbook, you can identify adaptation actions tailored for different groups of people, at the community level or more broadly, to support communities in increasing their resilience to climate change. The Handbook can be used for community-level planning and action, awareness and advocacy campaigning and for project and program design (Figure 4).
Steps in the CVCA process
There are seven main steps in the CVCA process. These are shown in Figure 3. (The outputs of each step are shown in colored boxes. Possible uses of the CVCA are presented in yellow boxes).
The steps do not have to be performed one after the other. In practice, some steps may take place concurrently. You may need to return to earlier steps to refine things as you get further along in the process. Note that these steps should be adapted based on when, how, and why you are using the CVCA.
Participatory tools used in the CVCA
As you will see, Step 4 of the CVCA process involves participatory research. This is where facilitators can engage community members in dialogue to learn about their experiences and gain their perspectives on climate change and its impacts on their community.
In Module 8 of this toolkit, you will learn about the process of developing a community adaptation action plan. Remember to come back to Module 3 and refresh yourself on the importance of including gender dimensions, engaging people of all gender identities, and using participatory tools. This will ensure that your adaptation actions support gender equality and promote the role of women, girls, and other vulnerable groups as key agents in the development of climate change solutions.
Deepen your understanding. Find links to supporting scientific research, important publications, and tools
Understanding gender and vulnerability to climate change
READ CARE’s introduction to gender basics to learn about the basic terms that are used in discussions on gender and climate change (e.g., the difference between gender and sex and the meaning of gender inequalities).
READ IUCN’s Disaster and gender statistics to learn about what research has found to reflect the gender inequalities between different genders during disasters.
READ CARE’s courses on climate and gender justice to learn about how climate justice and gender justice are linked and what is needed to implement gender-transformative and gender-responsive interventions.
WATCH the video Genderbread Cookie (7:14) to learn more about gender and how it differs from sex.
Tools for gender and vulnerability assessments
READ the CARE CVCA Handbook to learn how to conduct a Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA). It will give you a more detailed breakdown of the steps for doing a CVCA and how the findings can be used to inform policy and practice on climate change.
READ CARE’s introduction to CVCA, which is a course you can take to learn more about the CVCA and its applicability to understanding the differential impacts of climate change on people with different gender identities.
The Communities Care project by UNICEF in Somalia and Sudan challenged the gender norms around gender-based violence through peer-facilitated dialogue. In this project, communities came together to discuss and understand the drivers of gender inequalities that caused gender-based violence against women. These dialogues helped the communities towards an increased awareness about gender-based violence and enabled them to have an intergenerational conversation about the harmful impacts of this type of violence. Young people and adults had conversations about norms and behaviors that exacerbated such violence and identified ways of eliminating these norms and behaviors.
Blue Ventures supporting fishing women in Comoros
Blue Ventures is working with fisherwomen in Comoros to help them progress and make more value from their fisheries. The women work through a local association made up of women from threevillages who fish for octopus, shells and fish on reef flats while also working to preserve and manage the marine resources that provide them with this fishing livelihood. The women have sincelearned about fish and octopus preservation techniques such as salting, drying and smoking.
Gender in climate-smart agriculture in Mali
In 2017, a UN Women-led program called Agriculture Femmes et Dévelopement Durable (AgriFed) partnered with Groupe d’Animation Action au Sahel, a local non-governmental organization in Mali, on a projectto help women improve their crop yield, income and wellbeing. The project worked with women farmers to modernize their farming techniques, which strengthened livelihoods and increased income. Read about the case study(p.44).
WATCH the video Young African Leaders Initiative Town Hall (1:12:02), which features a speech by former US President Barrack Obama to African young people. Obama challenges young people to rise up and address the challenges of today through empowerment and leadership.
WATCH the video of Manon Giovinazzo (2:12), a Girls Education Specialist in UNICEF Djibouti. Manon Giovinazzo is 26 years old and arrived in Djibouti to join UNICEF as a Girls Education Specialist. She notes how her work has helped her change and deepen how she understands the educational gap between boys and girls.
WATCH this video of Mariam Mmbaga (1:40), an African Union Youth Volunteer at UNICEF Nairobi. Mariam says that ensuring equal access to opportunities for boys and girls requires the involvement of boys and men.
Your last stop. Here, you have space to test your knowledge (with a short quiz) and consider how you can apply what you have learned to your own climate action.
Test your understanding
You have learnt a lot and have many red hot ideas. Test your knowledge with a quiz and give yourself space to cool down and reflect on what you have learnt. Use this section to take stock of how you will put your skills into action.
True or false? Due to gender inequalities, women are more likely to be poor than men.
Correct answer:a) True
Explanation: Gender inequality is one of the main causes of poverty. Women are more likely to be poor than men. For every 100 men, aged between 25 and 34, living in extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, there are 127 women.
For women and girls living in poverty, the “double injustice” threatening their chances of achieving a better life refers to the combination of which two elements:
Correct answer:d) Gender inequality and climate change
Explanation:Gender inequalityis one of the root causes of poverty. Climate change, in turn, is making poverty worse. This means that, for many women and girls living in poverty, the chances of achieving a better life are threatened by a double injustice: climate change and gender inequality.
What is gender equality?
Correct answer:a) Equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for women and men (and all genders).
Explanation: Gender equality is the recognition that different genders have different needs and priorities and that all genders should experience equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and can contribute to and benefit from national, political, economic, social and cultural development.
Fill in the gap. According to CARE's Gender Equality Framework, to be gender transformative, Community-Based Adaptation should focus on building agency, transforming structures and …...
Correct answer:c) changing relations
Explanation: Changing relations enables people to relate differently, which is important for how society defines gender norms and addresses gender inequalities. For example, this could include training women and girls in leadership and gender equality while at the same time creating structured spaces where men and boys can be engaged to reflect on masculinities, gender, power, and privilege in their lives and the role of women as actors and decision-makers within communities.
CARE’s CVCA Handbook can be used for three main activities. Which combination of activities is correct:
Correct answer:a) Community-level planning and action, awareness and advocacy campaigning, project and program design
Explanation: The CVCA Handbook guides you through the process of doing a CVCA. By following the handbook, you can identify adaptation actions tailored for different groups of people, at the community level or more broadly, to support communities in increasing their resilience to climate change. The Handbook can be used for community-level planning and action, awareness, and advocacy campaigning and for project and program design.
Congratulations You have now completed this module
Your quiz score is 0 correct answers out of 5 questions.
Reflect and prepare for your climate adaptation action
Consider the following questions about gender and climate change.
What are some of the norms and beliefs that have contributed towards causing gender inequalities in your community or country? Which groups have been impacted by these inequalities? How have they been impacted?
What do the gender inequalities mean for how people with different gender identities can engage in climate adaptation action?
How can you, as a young person, contribute to ensure that people of any gender can equally engage in climate adaptation action?
Accredited Entities partner with GCF to implement projects. Accredited Entities can be private or public, non-governmental, sub-national, national, regional or international, as long as they meet the standards of the Fund. Accredited Entities carry out a range of activities that usually include the development of funding proposals and the management and monitoring of projects and programmes. Countries may access GCF resources through multiple entities simultaneously.
Adaptation finance gap refers to difference between the estimated costs of adaptation and the actual number of financial resources needed to support adaptation efforts. The estimated adaptation costs in developing countries are five to ten times greater than current public adaptation finance flows, and the adaptation finance gap is widening.
Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP)
ASAP was launched by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in 2012 to make climate and environmental finance work for smallholder farmers. A multi-year and multi-donor financing window, ASAP provides a new source of co-financing to scale up and integrate climate change adaptation across IFAD’s new investments.
The Adaptation Fund is a global fund established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol and are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. It pioneered Direct Access, empowering countries to access funding and develop projects directly through accredited national implementing entities.
The Cancun Adaptation Framework is a set of guidelines and measures that were established during the UNCCC held in Cancun in 2010.
The CAF aims to strengthen action on adaptation in developing countries through international cooperation. It will support better planning and implementation of adaptation measures through increased financial and technical support, and through strengthening and/or establishing regional centres and networks. The framework will also boost research, assessments and technology cooperation on adaptation, as well as strengthen education and public awareness.
Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
The term "climate change" often refers specifically to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes.
In human systems, climate change adaptation refers to the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, it refers to the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects; human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.
In practical terms, adaptation refers to the changes people and institutions make to adjust to observed or projected changes in climate. It is an ongoing process that aims to reduce vulnerability to climate change.
Retrieved from: CARE (2019).
Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook: careclimatechange.org/cvca/
Climate crisis is a term increasingly being used by UN agencies, scientists, media and civil society organizations to better reflect the urgency and the severity of the emergency we are facing. It reflects the fact that the climate is changing as a result of human behavior, and that it has and will have dramatic effects on women, men, girls and boys and their environment.
Climate Finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions that will address climate change.
Climate Funds Update is an independent website that provides information and data on the growing number of multilateral climate finance initiatives designed to help developing countries address the challenges of climate change.
Climate information refers to the collection and interpretation of observations of the actual weather and climate as well as simulations of climate in both past and future periods. Climate information is the collection and interpretation of weather and climate data that is credible, relevant and usable.
CIS involve the provision of climate information in a way that assists decision making by individuals and organizations. They are tools and processes that enable decision makers and user communities to assess, and prevent or prepare for, potential impactful weather and climate events.
Climate Justice is about a future in which the poorest and most marginalized people have significantly improved their wellbeing and can enjoy their human rights due to increased resilience to climate change, increased equality and a global temperature rise that is limited to 1.5°C.
Evidence-based analysis conducted to identify 1) the extent to which a human, social and/or ecological system has been or will likely be affected by climate variability and change, and 2) strategies to address these impacts.
Climate-Smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes—cropland, livestock, forests and fisheries — that address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change.
Community-based adaptation is a set of climate change adaptation activities developed in partnership with at-risk communities to promote local awareness of, and appropriate and sustainable solutions to, current and future climatic conditions.
The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP, at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.
The Heads of State of the East African Community (EAC) directed the EAC Secretariat to develop a Climate Change Policy and strategies to address the adverse impacts of Climate Change in the region and harness any potential opportunities posed by Climate Change in the context of the principle of sustainable development.
The overall objective of the EAC Climate Change Policy is to guide Partner States and other stakeholders on the preparation and implementation of collective measures to address Climate Change in the region while assuring sustainable social and economic development.
This Framework is prepared to provide the effective delivery of adaptation services to the most climate vulnerable areas and people of Nepal. It supports the design of new and implementation of existing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) that have already been designed and piloted. It is expected to help integrate climate adaptation and resilience aspects in local and national plans.
The direct effects of climate change that can be observed by rising maximum and/or minimum temperatures, rising sea levels, ocean temperature, changing rainfall patterns, increase in (heavy) precipitation, glacier melting, heatwaves, cyclones, drought, etc. and that in return lead to more climate related hazards. The effects of these changes on humans and natural environment can be seen in e.g. increased hunger and poverty as a result from failed harvest due to droughts/extreme rain; Health risks as a result from heatwaves; Increased pests from change in temperature; Loss of biodiversity, as flora and fauna cannot adapt to a new climate reality; Reduction in fish from coral bleaching as a result from ocean acidification.
Exposure is “the presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental functions, services, and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected”.
Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality does not mean that women and men will become the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female.
Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.
Strategies applied in program planning, assessment, design, implementation and M&E to consider gender norms and to compensate for gender-based inequalities. For example, when a project conducts a gender analysis and incorporates the results into its objectives, work plan and M&E plan, it is undertaking a gender integration process.
Adaptation can be incremental (making step-changes in the way people act but maintaining the system) or transformative (serving to fundamentally change system attributes). Gender-transformative approaches create opportunities for individuals to actively challenge existing gender norms, promote positions of social and political influence for women, and address power inequalities between persons of different genders.
Goals are the specification of what an advocacy initiative should accomplish. Goals need to be SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound. They should clearly state what will change, who will make that change, by how much, and when. When goals are poorly articulated or ambiguous, it can be difficult to understand what the advocacy initiative is trying to achieve, to maintain focus and to evaluate efforts.
GCF is a unique global platform to respond to climate change by investing in low-emission and climate-resilient development. GCF was established by 194 governments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, and to help vulnerable societies adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Given the urgency and seriousness of this challenge, GCF is mandated to make an ambitious contribution to the united global response to climate change.
The atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming and climate change. The major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20). Less prevalent --but very powerful -- greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
Hazard is a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon and/or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Integrated risk management law and policy (IRM) checklist
This checklist can be used as a basis for advocacy strategies aiming to integrate Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Ecosystem Management and Restoration into laws, policies and their implementation on the ground.
IPCC is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC was created to provide policymakers with regular scientific assessments on climate change, its implications and potential future risks, as well as to put forward adaptation and mitigation options
The Joint Principles for Adaptation (JPA) is a statement by civil society organizations from across the world on what they consider to be a benchmark for good adaptation planning and implementation. It is a tool for ensuring that national policies and plans meet the needs and fulfil the rights of the most vulnerable people to adapt to climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that was adopted on 11 December 1997. Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets.
The LDCF is enabling Least Developed Countries to prepare for a more resilient future. LDCF funding helps recipient countries address their short-, medium- and long-term resilience needs and reduce climate change vulnerability in priority sectors and ecosystems.
LDCF backing helps countries implement National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) – country-driven strategies for addressing their most urgent adaptation needs. It also supports the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, and the Least Developed Country work program under the UNFCCC.
This Framework is prepared to provide the effective delivery of adaptation services to the most climate vulnerable areas and people of Nepal. It supports the design of new and implementation of existing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) that have already been designed and piloted. It is expected to help integrate climate adaptation and resilience aspects in local and national plans.
LLA allows an approach of empowerment of the different local stakeholders through the implementation of different tools for participatory planning, consensual decision making, accountability and integration of local and scientific knowledge, as well as capacity building by prioritizing local stakeholders. Thus, it is important to understand that local stakeholders better understand their problems and the actions to prioritize in order to solve them. In this sense, locally-led adaptation allows power to be shifted to local stakeholders while they are accompanied by external actors to alleviate the burden of responsibility for adaptation, in order to catalyze effective, equitable and transparent adaptation. Locally-led adaptation, unlike other more common participatory approaches, goes beyond the involvement of local stakeholders and only occurs when they have control over the development and adaptation processes. For CARE, this approach is equivalent to the CBA.
Loss and damage is a general term used in UN climate negotiations to refer to the consequences of climate change that go beyond what people can adapt to, or when options exist but a community doesn’t have the resources to access or make use of them.
Monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL) practices have the purpose of applying knowledge gained from evidence and analysis to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and, ultimately, the outcomes and impact of their projects/initiatives and ensure accountability for the resources used to achieve them.
The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) is a process that was established under the Cancun Adaptation Framework (CAF). It enables Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans (NAPs) as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address those needs. It is a continuous, progressive and iterative process that follows a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach.
NAPAs provide a process for the least-developed countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change - those needs for which further delay could increase vulnerability or lead to increased costs at a later stage. The rationale for NAPAs rests on the limited ability of the LDCs to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. In the NAPA process, prominence is given to community-level input as an important source of information, recognizing that grassroots communities are the main stakeholders.
National Communication is a report that each country that is a Party to the UNFCCC must submit. These reports highlight development priorities, objectives and national circumstances, including ongoing action and needs for meeting adaptation and mitigation goals and the
objectives of the Convention. Parties are required to submit their first NC within three years of entering the Convention, and every four years thereafter.
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are climate action plans to cut emissions and adapt to climate impacts. Each Party to the Paris Agreement is required to establish an NDC and update it every five years.
Nature-based solutions are actions to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural and modified ecosystems in ways that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, to provide both human well-being and biodiversity benefits
Objectives are specific and measurable targets that must be achieved in order to realize the broader goals. These objectives are concrete and medium-term and provide a clear direction for the organization and individuals in achieving the goal.
The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.
The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.
PESTLE stands for: Political, Economic, Social Technological, Legal and Environmental factors or trends.
It is helpful to break down the process of undertaking a context analysis into manageable chunks using a PESTLE analysis. This tool promotes a systematic understanding of the wider environment. It can also help to identify new issues and opportunities on the horizon; to create scenarios; and to develop a coherent vision.
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience is a program that supports developing countries and regions in building their adaptation and resilience to the impacts of climate change. First, the PPCR assists governments in integrating climate resilience into strategic development planning across sectors and stakeholder groups. Second, it provides concessional and grant funding to put the plans into action and pilot innovative public and private sector solutions.
Primary targets are the people who have the power to make the changes needed to achieve the advocacy objectives. They are often known as decision-makers. It is vital to know who makes the decisions so as not to waste time or resources targeting the wrong people.
Problem Trees are graphic tools that helps find solutions by mapping out the anatomy of cause and effect around an issue in a similar way to a Mind Map, but with more structure. The policy-related problem or issue is written in the centre of the flip chart and becomes the trunk of the tree. The causes and consequences of the focal problem become the roots. The question of ‘why’ an issue is a problem needs to be repeatedly asked to find the root cause.
Non-hazardous waste material that cannot be re-used or recycled and needs to be sent to energy recovery (incineration/biogas) or disposal (landfill)
Resilience is the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions through risk management.
Resilience is the capacity to deal with shocks and stresses, manage risks and transform lives and systems in response to new hazards.
Results chains are a visual tool for showing what a project is doing and why. They explain all the links in the chain from project actions to market actor changes, through to impacts on target groups, in detail, for a particular intervention. They can be used to monitor change and adapt strategy on an ongoing basis.
Risk is “the potential for adverse consequences where something of value is at stake and where the occurrence and degree of an outcome is uncertain.” Risk is a function of vulnerability, exposure and the likelihood of a hazard occurring.
Secondary targets are individuals or groups who have the potential to influence or persuade the primary target, who may be difficult to reach or persuade directly.
Secondary targets could be people to whom the primary target is accountable, advisors, local government officials, media, public opinion, personal contacts, celebrities, or academics. By persuading these secondary targets, the hope is that they can then influence the primary target to change their stance or take a desired action.
The Special Climate Change Fund is a fund that is established under the Convention in 2001 to finance projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. It is managed by the GEF.
SDGs are seventeen global goals, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The SDGs provide a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future and are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The UNFCCC is an international treaty that entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 198 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention. Preventing “dangerous” human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.
In the context of climate change, vulnerability refers to the potential for negative effects resulting from the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability to the same risks may differ based on gender, wealth, mobility and other factors. It is influenced by adaptive capacity; the higher the adaptive capacity, the lower the vulnerability.