Develop: Soft skills for youth leadership in adaptation
Introduction: Developting soft skills for youth leadership in adaptation
This module will equip you with important skills necessary to become an effective youth leader in adaptation. It includes success stories of effective youth leaders to inspire you.
What will I learn in this module?
By the end of the module, you will:
Have gained an understanding of what it means to be a leader.
Have gained knowledge about the essential characteristics of young leaders in the climate adaptation space.
Have deepened your knowledge of essential leadership skills, including facilitating groups negotiating agreements, and developing an effective “elevator pitch.”
The below infographic provides a summary of the key content in this module:
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What is leadership?
In a complex and ever-changing world, what is leadership? How is it defined? And what are some of the qualities of an effective leader? Before discussing what leadership is, it’s helpful to understand what it is not. According to Kevin Kruse, CEO of coaching platform LEADx, leadership has nothing to do with seniority or one’s position within a hierarchy. Leadership has nothing to do with titles or personal attributes, and leadership is not management.
Rather, as Figure 1 shows, leadership involves:
Social influence to ensure that the work of others contributes toward achieving a defined goal.
Taking risks and challenging the status quo to achieve specific outcomes.
Accomplishing a goal through the direction of human assistants.
Influencing other people to follow.
In all these definitions, you can see that a leader works with others toward a desired goal or outcome.
What characteristics make a good leader?
The climate crisis requires innovative leaders to shape an agenda that will lead to sustainable, fair and lasting solutions. But what are the qualities of a good leader? 10 key characteristics that make a good leader. We unpack each below.
Integrity means being honest and having strong moral principles. Leaders need to be guided by strong moral principles. This enables others to trust them.
Delegation means entrusting responsibilities to others in your team. A good leader should trust their team members to complete tasks and deliver results. Delegating
is one of the core responsibilities of a leader. The end goal is to free yourself up, to enable others to grow, facilitate teamwork and provide autonomy, thus leading to better decision making.
Communication is essential. The best leaders are skilled communicators who can express themselves and pass on information to others effectively. A good leader must be able to listen to, and communicate with, a wide range of people across roles, geographies, social identities, and more. Communication is vital for young climate changemakers to enable them to put forward convincing arguments and speeches, advocate for policy changes, and convince people to get on board with their ideas for positive change.
Self-awareness involves the ability to look at yourself and reflect on your way of interacting with the world and the people within it. The better you understand yourself, and recognize your strengths and weaknesses, the more effective you can be as a leader.
Gratitude can make you a better leader. This involves expressing your appreciation for the work of your colleagues. Being thankful can lead to higher self-esteem, reduced depression and anxiety, and better sleep. However, few people regularly say thank you, even though most employees say they’d be willing to work harder in an environment where they feel appreciated.
Learning agility is about knowing how to learn on the job. It enables you to learn something new in one place and then apply what you’ve learned elsewhere in a different situation. If you’re a “quick study” or can excel in unfamiliar circumstances, you might already be learning agile. Great leaders are great learners.
Influence is an important trait for inspiring, effective leaders. Influence is quite different from manipulation, and it needs to be done authentically and transparently. It requires emotional intelligence and trust.
Empathy correlates with emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness. By exhibiting more inclusive leadership and empathetic behaviors, good leaders set themselves up for success.
Courage is a key trait of good leaders since it can be hard to speak up, especially in relation to sensitive topics such as climate change. Rather than avoiding challenging conversations and topics, having courage enables leaders to step up and move things in the right direction.
Respect can be shown in many ways. Treating people with respect is one of the most important things a leader can do. It will ease tensions and conflict, create trust and improve effectiveness. Respectfulness starts with seeking to understand the experiences of others.
Applying CARE’s Gender Equality Framework to leadership
As you learned in Module 3, CARE’s Gender Equality Framework supports climate adaptation approaches that strengthen the capacity of women, girls and other vulnerable groups. The Framework can also be helpful for developing your leadership skills. Ultimately, the Framework is about empowering yourself and others. To be an effective leader you need to pay attention to each of its three components (shown in Figure 2).
Agency: to build your agency as a leader you can equip yourself with the skills and knowledge required to lead.
Relations: as a leader, you need
to be able to relate to people, communicate clearly, delegate tasks and inspire others in your team. You also need to build your network.
Structure: as a leader, you need to influence those people and structures around you that can support your leadership, creating an enabling environment for meeting your goals. This connects to the work of climate change adaptation advocacy (the focus of Module 7).
Develop your leadership skills
In this section, we highlight activities for developing your leadership ability, along with key leadership skills – facilitation, negotiation and communication.
Activities to bring out your leadership abilities
Draw your leadership dreams into reality
Many of us have big dreams for our lives and who we want to be in the world. But it can be easy to put these off for another time or be sabotaged by doubting voices. If you have ambitions of being a climate change adaptation leader you need to make your vision a reality.
A good first step is to “draw your dreams into reality,” a strategy used by Patti Dobrowolski, a change agent and business consultant. You don’t need to be an artist for this. Just get hold of a paper and pen and start scribbling. To draw your vision for your future:
Draw your current state (where you are in your life currently).
Draw your desired new reality as a leader (where you want to be in future).
Identify the steps you need to take to get from where you are to where you want to be.
TIP: Watch the video where Dobrowolski explains how to do this, allowing your creativity to shape your future vision. Doing so will provide you with a “roadmap for change,” a way to work toward your ambitions of becoming a young climate leader.
Identify what you can learn from other leaders
One way to build your leadership skills is to apply what other great leaders are doing to motivate their teams and drive action. Look around at the people you admire as leaders. These could be leaders in your community, or at your work or school. They could be national or international figures, such as climate change advocates or inspirational businesspeople.
Identify three to five people you think are great leaders. For each person, ask yourself:
What makes them a good leader?
Which of the 10 characteristics of a good leader (featured earlier in this module) do they embody?
What can you learn from them about leadership and apply in your own life?
Find opportunities to volunteer and support climate change adaptation
Working as a volunteer can teach you valuable leadership skills. If you can get involved in local climate change initiatives, you can also build your knowledge of the sector.
If you have already done some volunteering work, write down your experiences and consider what leadership skills you have built through them.
Consider ways you could volunteer in climate change adaptation initiatives and what leadership skills you could build through doing so. Choose volunteer opportunities that give you a chance to lead and work with other young people.
Learn to facilitate a group
As a youth leader, you may need to facilitate groups. For example, you may be asked to facilitate a discussion and/or training session about climate adaptation for other young people.
To be an effective facilitator you need to:
Have sufficient expertise on the topic under discussion and be able to think on your feet.
Be a good communicator. This means that you can pass on accurate information to the audience, in ways the audience can understand, and respond to different types of questions when asked.
Be organized and structure a dialogue or training session so that all activities can be completed in the time allotted.
Apply an analytical mindset so that you have a good understanding of the audience’s learning needs and different ways of meeting them.
Be innovative and a lifelong learner so you can update your content and delivery to meet your audience’s needs.
Be a good listener and observer so that you can make people feel included and heard.
Be a self-evaluator, which involves welcoming feedback and assessing your performance.
Be highly adaptable so that you can deal with unexpected challenges that arise during the facilitation process.
Learn to negotiate
As a leader, you will need to negotiate with fellow young people and other members of society. Negotiation skills enable you to achieve your goals while ensuring that you are respectful of other people’s needs and beliefs.
There are numerous situations where you may need to negotiate as a climate adaptation leader. For example, when speaking to your local government representative about adaptation solutions you want to see implemented, or when speaking to a local non- governmental organization about funding for a project that engages youth in your community on climate change.
To negotiate effectively, follow the steps below:
Step 1: Prepare for the negotiation
Make sure you take the time to prepare for your negotiation.
Research the person you are negotiating with and learn about the history and context of the negotiation.
Devise your negotiation strategy (what you aim to achieve, allowing for some movement and reaching agreement, and how you will approach the negotiation).
Prepare your case (how you will present and substantiate your arguments).
Plan your tactics (timing, the appropriate means of communication, location).
Step 2: Open the negotiation
This requires that you first set the scene, for example through personal introductions, highlighting the purpose of the meeting and making sure that everyone has access to the background information relating to the topic or problem being discussed.
Do: listen well; ask open questions; check that you clearly understand the other person’s position; summarize; withhold judgement.
Don’t: interrupt; immediately put down the other person’s position; reveal all your negotiating currency, answer questions too specifically.
Step 3: Conduct the negotiation
Here you explore the options and positions that are available for solving the problem. You can present the different ways the problem under negotiation can be resolved, carefully citing the information and sources you have consulted. You should guide the conversation to find a common understanding of a solution while also identifying sticking points (areas where there are disagreements).
Do: focus on the topic or problem, not the person; concentrate on issues, not positions, even if the gap between the positions seems large; listen for common ground and possible sticking points; ask probing and clarifying questions; listen for what is not being said; observe the other person’s body language to pick up any contradictions in what is being said; summarize and check understanding; make notes where relevant.
Don’t: interrupt; talk too much or allow the other person to talk too much; be tempted to present counter arguments; start to become entrenched in your position; think in terms of “right” and “wrong” – it is more helpful to think in terms of difference.
Step 4: Move toward agreement
Now you can direct the negotiation towards coming to an agreement. This is where you identify concessions – issues or demands that you are willing to forego or offer – while also identifying your contribution to the proposed solution.
Do: aim for a win/win outcome; summarize as you proceed; be open about your motives; give reasons before making a proposal or a decision; anticipate counterarguments; ask questions; keep focused on the central theme; gain concessions; build on common ground; pitch any other offers at the right level depending on the context.
Don’t: make threats or use sarcasm; use irritating phrases such as “I’m sure you’ll want to accept my extremely generous offer”; let the discussion lose focus; become defensive or attack the other person; insult the other person; question the other person’s motives; rejects arguments out of hand; force decisions prematurely.
Step 5: Reach agreement
You reach an agreement by identifying the areas where you and the other group, or person, you have been negotiating with agree. It may be possible that an agreement is not reached, and instead people need more time to think about your offer. In this case, you can recommend that you adjourn the meeting to another time.
Do: record all decisions in writing and make sure they are witnessed; use the law of reciprocity or other face-savers; give people time to consider their acceptance; check that all parties are committed to the decision and will abide by the agreements; make sure that both sides of the negotiation acknowledge their own and the other person’s contribution to the successful outcome; make sure that all parties are clear about the next steps.
Don’t: rush decisions through before everyone has stated that they agree; leave any actions to be followed up open-ended; gloat.
Step 6: Follow up on the negotiation
The last step is following up after a negotiation, where you either finalize the deal (if the outcome was positive) or arrange the next steps (if the negotiation ended with an agreement that another meeting was needed). If the negotiation was unsuccessful, an appropriate follow-up would be to thank those who participated.
Do: Send a note or e-mail to all parties summarizing the agreements reached and reminding them of the next steps; carry out all your agreed actions by the agreed deadline; inform all relevant parties, including those who were not directly involved in the negotiation, about
the conclusions that have been reached; send a letter of thanks to those involved in the negotiation.
Don’t: forget to follow up!
Learn to deliver a compelling elevator pitch
Whether you’re running a business and meeting with potential investors or leading a climate change adaptation campaign and want to influence people in power, knowing how to deliver a powerful “elevator pitch” is an essential skill.
As the name suggests, an elevator pitch is a short speech (think 2-5 minutes) that tells people exactly who you are, what you do, and why it’s important. It communicates what solutions you offer, or what you aim to achieve with a product or campaign. You use
it to quickly capture someone’s attention and secure their interest for a further, deeper discussion.
Your elevator pitch should give your audience:
A concise, basic description of your climate change adaptation solution, campaign, or business.
An indication of the need, or growing demand, for what you are proposing.
An understanding of the value your solution, campaign, or business brings.
A positive impression of you and your team, and an indication of your expertise and why you are the best people for the job.
Elevator pitch keys to success
Know who you are talking to before you start.
Practice, practice, practice.
If people ask recurring questions, this show’s your pitch is missing something. Revise it.
Have a 1–2-minute version ready for networking events and impromptu meetings. Have a five-minute version ready for longer pitch events.
After your pitch, exchange contacts and follow up with an executive summary about your adaptation solution, campaign, or business.
Where to use your leadership skills
As a young climate change leader and advocate for adaptation, you will have many opportunities to apply your leadership skills. Also remember that leaders continue to learn, remaining agile and open to new knowledge and ways of doing things.
Ways you might use your leadership skills include:
Building partnerships with civil society organizations, businesses, youth advocacy groups and government.
Engaging in local adaptation actions (learn more about this in Module 8).
Influencing politicians to make changes to climate change adaptation policy.
Training other young people on climate change adaptation and leadership.
Starting a business that provides climate change adaptation solutions.
Engaging with the media to raise public awareness of climate change adaptation.
Running an advocacy campaign to drive positive changes that promote adaptation (learn more about this in Module 7).
Deepen your understanding. Find links to supporting scientific research, important publications, and tools
READ the report, A New Green Learning Agenda, from the Brookings Institution. It offers a framework for conceptualizing the green skills needed by young people to catalyze technical and social transformation in response to climate change.
EXPLORE this toolkit from The Transformative Action Institute to learn about different activities that you can use to develop your leadership skills.
EXPLORE the tool from UN Women for organizations to self-assess how they support women’s leadership and meaningful participation in disaster and climate risk reduction, recovery, climate change adaptation (CCA), post-disaster recovery, and resilience building.
Learn about emotional intelligence in leadership
READ about why emotional intelligence is important in leadership in an article by Lauren Landry of the Harvard Business School. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, use, understand, manage, and handle emotions. People with high emotional intelligence can recognize their own emotions and those of others, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, and adjust emotions to adapt to environments.
Read case studies, watch videos, and listen to podcasts about young climate leaders to get fired up for your own climate change actions!
Adaptation action led by girls in Mali, Somalia and Zimbabwe
As part of a CARE International project, adolescent girls took the lead on actions in rural communities severely affected by climate change. In these contexts, traditional gender norms contribute to high rates of early marriage and other forms of gender-based violence and exclusion, which disproportionately affects girls’ education.
In Mali, 1,027 young leaders conducted activities with other students and out- of-school children in their communities to help mitigate the impact of climate change. They took part in reforestation, demonstrated drought-adapted agriculture techniques, and improved water management and sanitation in their communities.
In Zimbabwe, girls took the lead in a project using solar energy to get water for menstrual health management and to maintain school gardens. They developed their leadership skills and helped the community improve its water management system.
In Somalia, actions focused on the barriers faced by pastoralist girls displaced by recurrent droughts, including supporting enrollment, tracking cases of absenteeism and dropout, preventing early marriage, and enhancing awareness of menstrual health management and gender rights.
Read the case studies in full in this report from the Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies.
LEARN about The United Nations Climate Change Conference, the world’s biggest and most important climate change conference. Known as the COP, this event brings world leaders together each year. There is plenty of space for young people to engage with days and events dedicated to learning more about issues affecting youth and to amplify youth voices. For example, COP27 (in 2022), featured a Youth and Future Generation Day, where young people showcased success stories and challenges and engaged with key climate decision makers.
CHECK OUT UNEP’s Young Champions of the Earth Competition, a global competition for entrepreneurs and innovators aged 18–30 with big ideas to secure a sustainable future.
All these ideas address urgent environmental issues in bold and creative ways. The Young Champions of the Earth is a forward-looking prize designed to breathe life into the ambitions of young environmentalists. Watch this video of 2020 winner Nzambi Matee, whose company Gjenge Makers produces building materials from recycled plastic.
CHECK OUT the African Youth Adaptation Solutions (YouthADAPT) Challenge, an annual competition and awards program for youth-led enterprises (50% women-led). Jointly organized by the Global Center on Adaptation, the African Development Bank and Climate Investment Funds, the competition seeks to boost sustainable job creation through support for entrepreneurship and youth-led innovation in climate change adaptation and resilience across Africa. Read about the 2022 winners.
LISTEN to an episode of the Africa Renewal podcast on African Youth and the Climate Crisis. Adenike Oladosu, a Nigerian youth climate change activist, talks about the impact of climate change on women and girls and why “delaying [action] is denying the urgency of the climate change crisis in Africa.”
LISTEN to this episode of the TED Climate podcast, featuring Indonesian climate activist Melati Wijsen, who has been pushing for environmental protection on the island of Bali, where she lives. Wijsen offers three pieces of advice for young people seeking to make lasting, sustainable progress as well as how young changemakers can keep from burning out.
LISTEN to Y Talk Climate. The goal of this podcast is to educate youth in British Columbia, Canada, and around the world about the climate crisis, and empower them to turn expert insights into action. Listen to Episode 4: “A conversation with Youth Climate Leader, Marina Melinidis” (38:50), one of Canada’s Top 30 Under-30 Sustainability Leaders and Top 25 Under-25 Environmentalists.
WATCHthis video (2:38) of young poet Jordan Sanchez delivering her poem, ‘On climate denial.’ Sanchez was one of the high school students who took part in a 2019 poetry slam event about climate change, hosted by New York’s Climate Museum.
Your last stop. Here, you have space to test your knowledge (with a short quiz) and consider how you can apply what you have learned to your own climate action.
Test your understanding
You have learnt a lot and have many red hot ideas. Test your knowledge with a quiz and give yourself space to cool down and reflect on what you have learnt. Use this section to take stock of how you will put your skills into action.
When it comes to leadership, social influence refers to which one of the following?
Correct answer:d) Ensuring that the work of others contributes toward achieving a defined goal
EXPLANATION: In the case of leadership, social influence means having the ability to ensure that the work of others (e.g., in a team or group you are leading) contributes toward achieving a defined goal.
Which of the following is not one of the 10 characteristics of a good leader?
Correct answer:d) Commanding
EXPLANATION: a good leader does not need to command. Other than respect, integrity and self-awareness, a good leader should be able to delegate, communicate, show gratitude, have learning agility, exercise influence, show empathy and be courageous.
Which one of the following attributes is important for a facilitator?
Correct answer:a) Good communicator
EXPLANATION: A good facilitator should be able to communicate the message to the audience in a way and a language that they will understand, while also translating their messages to others.
Which one of the following should you not do when you are negotiating?
Correct answer:c) Rush decisions through before everyone has stated that they agree
EXPLANATION: You reach an agreement by identifying the areas where you and the other group, or person, you have been negotiating with agree. It may be possible that an agreement is not reached and instead people need more time to think about your offer. In this case, you can recommend that you adjourn the meeting to another time.
True or false? An “elevator pitch” should take about 15 minutes and include in-depth details about your climate change adaptation solution, campaign, or business idea.
Correct answer:b) False
EXPLANATION: As the name suggests, an elevator pitch is a short speech (think 2-5 minutes) that tells people exactly who you are, what you do, and why it’s important. It communicates what solutions you offer, or what you aim to achieve with a product or campaign. You use it to quickly capture someone’s attention and secure their interest for a further, deeper discussion.
Congratulations You have now completed this module
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Reflect and prepare for your climate adaptation action
As a young person who is working on becoming a leader in the world of climate change adaptation:
What qualities do you already have that will help you be an effective leader?
Based on what you have learned in this module, what qualities do you feel you need to develop further? How could you develop, or strengthen, those qualities?
What opportunities do you see in your community or country for taking a leadership role in climate change adaptation action? Map out your vision for how you will move from your current state to your desired role as a leader, identifying concrete steps you can take to make your dreams a reality.
Accredited Entities partner with GCF to implement projects. Accredited Entities can be private or public, non-governmental, sub-national, national, regional or international, as long as they meet the standards of the Fund. Accredited Entities carry out a range of activities that usually include the development of funding proposals and the management and monitoring of projects and programmes. Countries may access GCF resources through multiple entities simultaneously.
Adaptation finance gap refers to difference between the estimated costs of adaptation and the actual number of financial resources needed to support adaptation efforts. The estimated adaptation costs in developing countries are five to ten times greater than current public adaptation finance flows, and the adaptation finance gap is widening.
Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP)
ASAP was launched by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in 2012 to make climate and environmental finance work for smallholder farmers. A multi-year and multi-donor financing window, ASAP provides a new source of co-financing to scale up and integrate climate change adaptation across IFAD’s new investments.
The Adaptation Fund is a global fund established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol and are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. It pioneered Direct Access, empowering countries to access funding and develop projects directly through accredited national implementing entities.
The Cancun Adaptation Framework is a set of guidelines and measures that were established during the UNCCC held in Cancun in 2010.
The CAF aims to strengthen action on adaptation in developing countries through international cooperation. It will support better planning and implementation of adaptation measures through increased financial and technical support, and through strengthening and/or establishing regional centres and networks. The framework will also boost research, assessments and technology cooperation on adaptation, as well as strengthen education and public awareness.
Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
The term "climate change" often refers specifically to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes.
In human systems, climate change adaptation refers to the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, it refers to the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects; human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.
In practical terms, adaptation refers to the changes people and institutions make to adjust to observed or projected changes in climate. It is an ongoing process that aims to reduce vulnerability to climate change.
Retrieved from: CARE (2019).
Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook: careclimatechange.org/cvca/
Climate crisis is a term increasingly being used by UN agencies, scientists, media and civil society organizations to better reflect the urgency and the severity of the emergency we are facing. It reflects the fact that the climate is changing as a result of human behavior, and that it has and will have dramatic effects on women, men, girls and boys and their environment.
Climate Finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions that will address climate change.
Climate Funds Update is an independent website that provides information and data on the growing number of multilateral climate finance initiatives designed to help developing countries address the challenges of climate change.
Climate information refers to the collection and interpretation of observations of the actual weather and climate as well as simulations of climate in both past and future periods. Climate information is the collection and interpretation of weather and climate data that is credible, relevant and usable.
CIS involve the provision of climate information in a way that assists decision making by individuals and organizations. They are tools and processes that enable decision makers and user communities to assess, and prevent or prepare for, potential impactful weather and climate events.
Climate Justice is about a future in which the poorest and most marginalized people have significantly improved their wellbeing and can enjoy their human rights due to increased resilience to climate change, increased equality and a global temperature rise that is limited to 1.5°C.
Evidence-based analysis conducted to identify 1) the extent to which a human, social and/or ecological system has been or will likely be affected by climate variability and change, and 2) strategies to address these impacts.
Climate-Smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes—cropland, livestock, forests and fisheries — that address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change.
Community-based adaptation is a set of climate change adaptation activities developed in partnership with at-risk communities to promote local awareness of, and appropriate and sustainable solutions to, current and future climatic conditions.
The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP, at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.
The Heads of State of the East African Community (EAC) directed the EAC Secretariat to develop a Climate Change Policy and strategies to address the adverse impacts of Climate Change in the region and harness any potential opportunities posed by Climate Change in the context of the principle of sustainable development.
The overall objective of the EAC Climate Change Policy is to guide Partner States and other stakeholders on the preparation and implementation of collective measures to address Climate Change in the region while assuring sustainable social and economic development.
This Framework is prepared to provide the effective delivery of adaptation services to the most climate vulnerable areas and people of Nepal. It supports the design of new and implementation of existing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) that have already been designed and piloted. It is expected to help integrate climate adaptation and resilience aspects in local and national plans.
The direct effects of climate change that can be observed by rising maximum and/or minimum temperatures, rising sea levels, ocean temperature, changing rainfall patterns, increase in (heavy) precipitation, glacier melting, heatwaves, cyclones, drought, etc. and that in return lead to more climate related hazards. The effects of these changes on humans and natural environment can be seen in e.g. increased hunger and poverty as a result from failed harvest due to droughts/extreme rain; Health risks as a result from heatwaves; Increased pests from change in temperature; Loss of biodiversity, as flora and fauna cannot adapt to a new climate reality; Reduction in fish from coral bleaching as a result from ocean acidification.
Exposure is “the presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental functions, services, and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected”.
Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality does not mean that women and men will become the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female.
Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.
Strategies applied in program planning, assessment, design, implementation and M&E to consider gender norms and to compensate for gender-based inequalities. For example, when a project conducts a gender analysis and incorporates the results into its objectives, work plan and M&E plan, it is undertaking a gender integration process.
Adaptation can be incremental (making step-changes in the way people act but maintaining the system) or transformative (serving to fundamentally change system attributes). Gender-transformative approaches create opportunities for individuals to actively challenge existing gender norms, promote positions of social and political influence for women, and address power inequalities between persons of different genders.
Goals are the specification of what an advocacy initiative should accomplish. Goals need to be SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound. They should clearly state what will change, who will make that change, by how much, and when. When goals are poorly articulated or ambiguous, it can be difficult to understand what the advocacy initiative is trying to achieve, to maintain focus and to evaluate efforts.
GCF is a unique global platform to respond to climate change by investing in low-emission and climate-resilient development. GCF was established by 194 governments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, and to help vulnerable societies adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Given the urgency and seriousness of this challenge, GCF is mandated to make an ambitious contribution to the united global response to climate change.
The atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming and climate change. The major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20). Less prevalent --but very powerful -- greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
Hazard is a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon and/or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Integrated risk management law and policy (IRM) checklist
This checklist can be used as a basis for advocacy strategies aiming to integrate Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Ecosystem Management and Restoration into laws, policies and their implementation on the ground.
IPCC is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC was created to provide policymakers with regular scientific assessments on climate change, its implications and potential future risks, as well as to put forward adaptation and mitigation options
The Joint Principles for Adaptation (JPA) is a statement by civil society organizations from across the world on what they consider to be a benchmark for good adaptation planning and implementation. It is a tool for ensuring that national policies and plans meet the needs and fulfil the rights of the most vulnerable people to adapt to climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that was adopted on 11 December 1997. Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets.
The LDCF is enabling Least Developed Countries to prepare for a more resilient future. LDCF funding helps recipient countries address their short-, medium- and long-term resilience needs and reduce climate change vulnerability in priority sectors and ecosystems.
LDCF backing helps countries implement National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) – country-driven strategies for addressing their most urgent adaptation needs. It also supports the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, and the Least Developed Country work program under the UNFCCC.
This Framework is prepared to provide the effective delivery of adaptation services to the most climate vulnerable areas and people of Nepal. It supports the design of new and implementation of existing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) that have already been designed and piloted. It is expected to help integrate climate adaptation and resilience aspects in local and national plans.
LLA allows an approach of empowerment of the different local stakeholders through the implementation of different tools for participatory planning, consensual decision making, accountability and integration of local and scientific knowledge, as well as capacity building by prioritizing local stakeholders. Thus, it is important to understand that local stakeholders better understand their problems and the actions to prioritize in order to solve them. In this sense, locally-led adaptation allows power to be shifted to local stakeholders while they are accompanied by external actors to alleviate the burden of responsibility for adaptation, in order to catalyze effective, equitable and transparent adaptation. Locally-led adaptation, unlike other more common participatory approaches, goes beyond the involvement of local stakeholders and only occurs when they have control over the development and adaptation processes. For CARE, this approach is equivalent to the CBA.
Loss and damage is a general term used in UN climate negotiations to refer to the consequences of climate change that go beyond what people can adapt to, or when options exist but a community doesn’t have the resources to access or make use of them.
Monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL) practices have the purpose of applying knowledge gained from evidence and analysis to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and, ultimately, the outcomes and impact of their projects/initiatives and ensure accountability for the resources used to achieve them.
The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) is a process that was established under the Cancun Adaptation Framework (CAF). It enables Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans (NAPs) as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address those needs. It is a continuous, progressive and iterative process that follows a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach.
NAPAs provide a process for the least-developed countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change - those needs for which further delay could increase vulnerability or lead to increased costs at a later stage. The rationale for NAPAs rests on the limited ability of the LDCs to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. In the NAPA process, prominence is given to community-level input as an important source of information, recognizing that grassroots communities are the main stakeholders.
National Communication is a report that each country that is a Party to the UNFCCC must submit. These reports highlight development priorities, objectives and national circumstances, including ongoing action and needs for meeting adaptation and mitigation goals and the
objectives of the Convention. Parties are required to submit their first NC within three years of entering the Convention, and every four years thereafter.
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are climate action plans to cut emissions and adapt to climate impacts. Each Party to the Paris Agreement is required to establish an NDC and update it every five years.
Nature-based solutions are actions to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural and modified ecosystems in ways that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, to provide both human well-being and biodiversity benefits
Objectives are specific and measurable targets that must be achieved in order to realize the broader goals. These objectives are concrete and medium-term and provide a clear direction for the organization and individuals in achieving the goal.
The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.
The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.
PESTLE stands for: Political, Economic, Social Technological, Legal and Environmental factors or trends.
It is helpful to break down the process of undertaking a context analysis into manageable chunks using a PESTLE analysis. This tool promotes a systematic understanding of the wider environment. It can also help to identify new issues and opportunities on the horizon; to create scenarios; and to develop a coherent vision.
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience is a program that supports developing countries and regions in building their adaptation and resilience to the impacts of climate change. First, the PPCR assists governments in integrating climate resilience into strategic development planning across sectors and stakeholder groups. Second, it provides concessional and grant funding to put the plans into action and pilot innovative public and private sector solutions.
Primary targets are the people who have the power to make the changes needed to achieve the advocacy objectives. They are often known as decision-makers. It is vital to know who makes the decisions so as not to waste time or resources targeting the wrong people.
Problem Trees are graphic tools that helps find solutions by mapping out the anatomy of cause and effect around an issue in a similar way to a Mind Map, but with more structure. The policy-related problem or issue is written in the centre of the flip chart and becomes the trunk of the tree. The causes and consequences of the focal problem become the roots. The question of ‘why’ an issue is a problem needs to be repeatedly asked to find the root cause.
Non-hazardous waste material that cannot be re-used or recycled and needs to be sent to energy recovery (incineration/biogas) or disposal (landfill)
Resilience is the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions through risk management.
Resilience is the capacity to deal with shocks and stresses, manage risks and transform lives and systems in response to new hazards.
Results chains are a visual tool for showing what a project is doing and why. They explain all the links in the chain from project actions to market actor changes, through to impacts on target groups, in detail, for a particular intervention. They can be used to monitor change and adapt strategy on an ongoing basis.
Risk is “the potential for adverse consequences where something of value is at stake and where the occurrence and degree of an outcome is uncertain.” Risk is a function of vulnerability, exposure and the likelihood of a hazard occurring.
Secondary targets are individuals or groups who have the potential to influence or persuade the primary target, who may be difficult to reach or persuade directly.
Secondary targets could be people to whom the primary target is accountable, advisors, local government officials, media, public opinion, personal contacts, celebrities, or academics. By persuading these secondary targets, the hope is that they can then influence the primary target to change their stance or take a desired action.
The Special Climate Change Fund is a fund that is established under the Convention in 2001 to finance projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. It is managed by the GEF.
SDGs are seventeen global goals, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The SDGs provide a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future and are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The UNFCCC is an international treaty that entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 198 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention. Preventing “dangerous” human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.
In the context of climate change, vulnerability refers to the potential for negative effects resulting from the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability to the same risks may differ based on gender, wealth, mobility and other factors. It is influenced by adaptive capacity; the higher the adaptive capacity, the lower the vulnerability.