This module demonstrates how to develop climate adaptation actions and implement these in your communities and at the local level. This module will also equip you with relevant skills and tools to evaluate your adaptation actions. It provides guidance on how to scale up your adaptation action, identify adaptation funding opportunities and engage with potential investors.
What will I learn in this module?
By the end of the module, you will:
Have learned how to map climate risks, vulnerabilities and capacity gaps in communities and identify potential actions to address these.
Understand how to develop a Community Adaptation Action Plan.
Know about the key elements for creating a Monitoring, Evaluating and Learning (MEL) framework for your adaptation actions.
Understand what you need to consider when scaling up your adaptation actions.
Know more about adaptation funding opportunities and the basics of how to approach investors for financing.
The below infographic provides a summary of the key content in this module:
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Youth-led climate adaptation actions
As a young person, you can take the lead on climate adaptation action in your community. As you’ll remember from Module 2, adaptation actions support households, communities, and countries to respond to the effects of climate change.
Adaptation actions can take various forms. Many at the community level involve civil society groups that work to strengthen the ability of vulnerable people to adapt to climate change. As you learned in Module 4, these actions can also be entrepreneurial. Young innovators from around the continent have started businesses that provide adaptation solutions – such as clearing waste from waterways to reduce flooding risks or providing climate-smart irrigation to farmers.
Young people we surveyed when developing this Toolkit, highlighted several ways to engage in climate adaptation action.
Building capacity for local planning that integrates climate.
This can involve using climate risk and/or vulnerability analysis processes to inform local planning, and implementing community-based adaptation actions that empower young people, women and girls.
Accessing climate information services.
This means making use of weather forecasts and climate information to prepare for potential weather or climate events, sharing early warnings, and preparing communities for extreme weather.
Changing behaviors and norms towards climate change adaptation.
To do this, young people can educate others about practices like planting trees, reusing and recycling waste, collecting and storing water for irrigation, and not cutting down trees and forests.
Promoting accessible and resilient infrastructure.
Young people can help with building flood protection walls, drainage systems, shelters, homes and resilient community structures.
Mobilizing resources for local actions.
This may involve working to unlock government resources for local adaptation actions, or setting up a community savings system as a financial buffer for recovering after a climate shock or stress.
Promoting climate-smart technology.
This is technology that supports the efficient use of energy for lighting, irrigation, transportation and other systems.
Promoting climate-smart agriculture.
This involves diversifying crops and promoting stress-tolerant crops and livestock that can withstand stresses, such as droughts.
Promoting climate adaptation entrepreneurship.
This involves creating entrepreneurial ventures that address adaptation needs in your community.
Designing your plan for local adaptation action
First do your homework
To be successful in your mission, it is important to plan your approach, be informed and build relationships for collaboration. Questions to ask yourself at the start include:
What climate adaptation actions are already happening in your community?
Who else might be working on similar issues?
Can you find allies and/or opportunities to partner with others?
Knowing what is already happening and who is involved will prevent you from wasting time trying to reinvent the wheel. It will also open your eyes to partnership opportunities that could help make your action a success.
What is an effective adaptation partnership?
Relationships based on mutual trust, equality and learning, with an agreed vision, and clear accountability for all parties. Such partnerships engage the complementary strengths of those involved. Partners collaborate on specific objectives, challenges and opportunities in ways that achieve greater impact than they could achieve alone.
Follow this step-by-step process for planning your adaptation action
To develop your climate adaptation actions, you can use the Community Adaptation Action Planning (CAAP) process as a model. It brings local stakeholders together in an empowering learning process. The aim is to create tangible but flexible plans for communities to build their adaptive capacity and reduce their vulnerability to climate change over time. It can be used at the community level or more broadly.
Tip: Communities could already have development or disaster risk reduction plans in place. Adaptation should be integrated into these, instead of developing a separate adaptation plan.
How the CAAP process works
It involves four steps that aim to empower communities and build their ownership of adaptation plans and actions. (Steps 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Figure 1).
Steps 1, 6 and 7 aim to establish the existing processes and the linkages between communities and other governance levels (e.g., local adaptation plans and broader policies)
Steps 1 to 4 can be done over a few months, depending on circumstances. The full process is an ongoing cycle of activities that should become self-sustaining.
For the purpose of this module, we’ll look at Steps 1-5 in detail.
Step 1: Launching the Community Adaptation Action Planning process
Firstly, identify the purpose, process and stakeholders you’ll engage to start planning your adaptation actions.
Establish your team and devise a plan for what you need to do. Conduct initial background research, do a stakeholder analysis (as detailed in this guide from CARE), and make sure your team has been trained in necessary skills, such as facilitation (covered in Module 5).
Step 2: Context analysis and stakeholder mobilization
Second, understand the overall context and mobilize people to support and/or participate in the adaptation action planning process.
Here, you might also do background research, institutional mapping (which involves identifying the ways different institutions, and power relations, interact with and affect adaptation), and analysis of existing programs.
You can mobilize key stakeholders through interviews and meetings with communities and institutions that engage in adaptation and related issues.
Tools for step 2
Develop a workplan
By the end of step 2, you will be ready to develop a workplan for rolling out your CAAP process. Table 1 is an example of a workplan format for CAAP facilitators. You can adjust it to suit your needs.
Step 3: Participatory analysis of climate change vulnerability, risks and adaptive capacity
This step focuses on understanding the need for your local adaptation action. It allows you to build a common understanding of climate change risks, vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of institutions and groups within the community.
Here, you can do gender and diversity analysis to ensure your action meets the needs of the most vulnerable (covered in Module 3).
Tip: Community participation is key for developing impactful adaptation actions and plans. Step 3 is where you can start using participatory tools to help empower communities and give them ownership of adaptation plans and actions.
Key Climate Terms
In this step, you will need to be familiar with key climate change terms.
The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable or capable conditions.
A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon and/or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Short-term events or disruptions that have negative effects on people’s well- being, assets, livelihoods, safety, or their ability to withstand future shocks. Examples include sudden extreme weather events or disruptions, such as flash floods, cyclones and heatwaves.
Continuous, long-term trends or pressures that negatively impact people’s lives and the systems they live in. Examples include prolonged droughts, erratic weather patterns, rising sea levels, increased desertification and natural resource degradation
Find more terms in module 1, 2 and 3.
Tools to use in Step 3
Participatory tools are designed to encourage joint analysis, learning and action. Below, we highlight how CARE’s Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) can be used to analyze community-level vulnerabilities to climate change, and capacities to adapt. (To refresh yourself on the CVCA, refer to Module 3).
Mapping climate vulnerabilities
The CVCA helps you map climate vulnerabilities and capacities in a community, paying particular attention to gender, ecosystem and governance issues. It allows you to prioritize adaptation actions based on the needs of those most vulnerable to climate change.
To map vulnerabilities, you can:
Interview key people and run workshops and dialogues with community stakeholders.
Do research into climate change vulnerability at broader levels.
The analysis allows you to identify specific actions for increasing climate resilience, which can be tailored for different groups. The CVCA combines scientific and indigenous knowledge and ensures that all voices are heard.
Mapping climate risks and impacts
As part of the CVCA process, it is important to identify the main climate shocks and stresses that pose a risk to your community and country.
Use a table to list shocks and stresses
You can start by drawing a simple table (like Table 2) that lists possible shocks and stresses. Place a tick next to all the shocks and stresses your community faces.
Tip: Be sure to research a full range of shocks and stresses so you don’t miss any of the important ones!
Do the hazard map exercise with your community
A hazard map allows you to become familiar with the community and how it is perceived by different groups. During the exercise, community members identify important livelihood resources along with hazards affecting the community (climate-related and other). (For more information see the Field Guide section of the CVCA 2.0 Handbook).
Use the impact chains tool
You can use this tool (shown in Figure 2) to identify direct and indirect impacts of climate- related shocks and stresses on people’s livelihoods. It provides a basis for discussing how people are responding to these shocks and stresses.
Use the adaptations pathway tool
After looking at impact chains, you can use the adaptations pathway tool to get community input on what changes they could make to reduce the negative effects of the identified shocks and stresses (Figure 3).
Once you have identified the potential adaptation pathways, you then discuss which are most urgent and which can be done by individuals or require collective action. These can be used to generate solutions, which can feed into your adaptation action plan (Figure 4).
Step 4: Development of a community adaptation action plan
Now that you have mapped and identified key climate change risks and vulnerabilities, it’s time to co-develop a Community Adaptation Action Plan.
The plan will determine your strategy for addressing the climate change risks, vulnerabilities and adaptation pathways you identified in Step 3 and identify actions to take. It can also be used to support requests for funding.
Tools to use in step 4
Community visioning for a future with climate change
CARE’s “Community Visioning” approach brings together different people in the community to think about an ideal future in five, 10 or 20 years, in the context of climate change. It reveals how people’s expectations of the future within one community can be different. It helps a group reach a consensus about a common or shared vision.
How it works
You start by reminding participants of past, present and expected future situations based on scientific climate information and the information from previous participatory exercises.
Then, you ask participants to relax, close their eyes and clear their minds, and ask them to picture the future. You ask them a few questions, such as: What do you want to see in your community in 20 years? And what will the village look like?
You then ask them to open their eyes and draw their vision individually.
Finally, you compare different participants’ visions and try to reach a consensus.
This activity should take roughly 2 hours: 1 hour to imagine and draw the visions and 1 hour to discuss and develop a shared vision.
It should ideally be done with a representative group of people since the vision will drive the whole adaptation planning process. Aim to be as inclusive as possible.
Tip: In certain instances, young people and women and girls may not feel comfortable voicing their concerns in the same forum as men. To ensure everyone participates, the visioning exercise can first be done in separate groups for men and women. The vision of each can be discussed afterward in plenary to come up with a shared vision that reflects the hopes and dreams of all participants.
Adaptation options comparison table
The adaptation options comparison table helps you and your community finalize adaptation options, compare them using a list of criteria, and prioritize which ones to address (see Table 3 for an example).
How it works
You start by reminding participants of the vision they agreed on and the list of adaptation options they already proposed during previous participatory exercises.
Then, you discuss if those actions will enable you to reach the vision and discuss any missing options.
You will need to collectively decide on the criteria for comparing the different options proposed.
Once each option has been assessed, you facilitate a discussion to see if the scoring reflects participants’ views and if anything needs to be adjusted.
This activity should take approximately 2 hours: 1 hour to come up with the different adaptation options based on the vision and 1 hour to do the prioritization and have further discussion.
Before this exercise begins, the facilitators should identify a list of potential adaptation options per sector.
Keep in mind that the community is in the driving seat. They should first identify what they feel are the most relevant and appropriate adaptation options for specific climate vulnerabilities. The facilitators can suggest other options based on available information.
Tip: One of the key criteria can be the positive contribution to gender equality. If this is the case, it is important to define what this means and eventually use a specific gender matrix to analyze the differentiated effects of the adaptation options on things like workload, relations, power dynamics, arising gender-based violence, and see who will benefit more as a result of the activity.
Community Adaptation Action Plan (CAAP)
The CAAP merges all results from previous tools into a detailed action plan showing clear community-driven adaptation actions in response to identified climate change impacts and vulnerabilities. The plan provides a way forward, showing who the adaptation action(s) will target, who will implement the actions, when these will be implemented, and what resources are needed (see Table 4 for an example).
How it works
You work with participants to fill in the adaptation plan. The facilitators need to fill it in in advance with the priority adaptation options agreed on during previous sessions and the information already gathered on those options.
You present the plan at the start of the session to explain how everything links together. Then, the facilitators discuss each adaptation option to fill the additional columns for target group, who will implement, when, resources and success indicators.
This activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes. An hour to develop the plan, 30 minutes for discussion.
This activity requires preliminary work to pre-fill the plan format and save time for discussion with participants.
The format can vary according to the context. Table 4 is a template for developing the CAAP.
Step 5: Implementation of community adaptation action plan
This step is about implementing planned adaptation actions to strengthen adaptive capacity and reduce the vulnerability of different groups to climate risks.
Within this step, there are numerous things you will need to do. These are broken down into three main activities.
Assessing and improving your actions.
Prioritizing which actions you will pursue.
Deciding how to monitor and evaluate your adaptation actions.
Let’s look at each in more detail.
Assess your actions with the Adaptation Good Practice Checklist
Whatever actions you plan to undertake, it is important to assess them against the Adaptation Good Practice (AGP) Checklist. This will ensure that adaptation results in quality, impactful and long-term climate resilience for the most vulnerable people.
Assess your implementation plan against the checklist’s nine criteria (Figure 5) and make any necessary changes.
Prioritize which adaptation actions to implement
Once you have assessed your adaptation actions with the AGP checklist, and made any refinements, it’s time to prioritize the actions you will implement.
Consider what is feasible. Ask yourself:
Are the actions technically feasible? Do you have the necessary technological resources to implement them?
Are the actions financially feasible? Do you have the necessary financial resources? If not, how might you secure funding?
Do you, or your team, have the capacity to implement the actions?
How will the actions impact the community?
Decide how to monitor and evaluate your adaptation actions
When your adaptation actions are up and running, you will need to keep track of their progress and evaluate whether they are making the intended impact. That’s where Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning (MEL) comes in.
You should design a MEL framework before implementing your adaptation actions. This means you can learn from and update your actions as you progress. A MEL framework can inspire you as you track your achievements.
Additionally, a MEL framework will help you demonstrate impact when you are communicating about your work to others, which is important when trying to convince donors and partners to support and collaborate.
The three elements of MEL each have distinct purposes and processes.
Monitoring: continual and systematic collection of data to provide information about your adaptation action(s).
Evaluation: user-focused, systematic assessment of the design, implementation, and results of an ongoing or completed action.
Learning: having processes and a culture in place that enables you and your team to reflect on the work and make informed decisions based on experience.
The MEL system is only effective when these three pieces are aligned.
MEL terminology – what you need to know
Sustainable, significant and measurable changes in resilience and adaptive capacity for a particular population. Changes at the impact level are influenced by those factors directly addressed by an action, as well as other factors.
Outcomes (immediate and intermediate)
Changes in individual behaviors (e.g., individuals putting into practice new knowledge, attitudes or commitments) and changes that are structural or systemic (e.g., policy changes) that can be seen in different populations. Outcomes are often a result of what participants do on their own, influenced by the adaptation action, or other factors.
The products an adaptation action generates through implementation of its activities. Outputs could include the results of a training, such as the number of farmers trained on climate-smart agricultural techniques.
These are targeted at individuals, families, community organizations, the private sector and public sector, and civil society organizations. Activities are what the organization or individual implementing an action does rather than what the beneficiaries (or participants) will do
The set of resources needed by an adaptation action to deliver its commitments. These include the human and financial resources, physical facilities, equipment, materials, logistics, in-kind contributions and operational policies that enable services to be delivered.
A signal that shows whether or not progress is being made. When designing an indicator, ask: What does the result (change) mean? How do I know that the result (change) has happened?
The conscious and unconscious beliefs we each have about how the world works. When identifying the logic of an adaptation action, you should also identify the assumptions being made about its rationale, the context and people involved, and the conditions needed to implement it.
The logical sequences of interim changes that need to occur to reach the intended impact. These interim changes include changes in the focus population but also other actors who are instrumental in bringing about change.
How to design a basic MEL framework
First, establish a results chain with SMART indicators.
This shows how a particular action will lead to a desired result. Table 5 provides an example results chain for your inspiration.
Remember, the results chain should be accompanied by SMART indicators for your adaptation action(s) so you can measure success. As you learned in Module 7, SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-bound.
The model should address key questions, including:
What is your desired impact?
How do you believe change will take place? (this links to your Theory of Change, explained in Module 7).
What assumptions need to hold true for the change to occur?
Once you have analyzed your data and drawn conclusions, decide how to communicate your results
Decide who you will share your MEL results with. Your audience will likely be community members who took part in your adaptation action, partners, donors and local government. Here, it is important to know your audience and understand their needs. Make sure you communicate your results in a way your audience can interpret and that makes an impression.
You will also use the results of your MEL analysis to learn as a team. Ask yourself:
What worked well?
What could be improved? And how can we use what we have learned to improve the adaptation action?
Scaling up your adaptation actions
After implementing your adaptation action in its initial stage, and evaluating the outcomes, you might be pleased to see that it has been successful and has potential for scaling up. At this stage, it’s important to consider how the intervention supports effective adaptation.
Check to see that your action supports effective climate change adaptation
Can the intervention withstand variations in climate? Can it be easily used by your target community without the need for help from specialists?
Is the intervention cost-effective and can it be sustained financially over the short, medium and long term?
Does the intervention disrupt social cohesion or create division among members of a community? If so, how might you build bridges between people and bring people with different opinions together to create a shared understanding of the benefits of the action?
Does the adaptation action support the agency and wellbeing of women and girls?
Use the Business Model Canvas to define your value proposition
When thinking about scaling up your adaptation action, you need to have a clear understanding of the value it brings, the costs involved, and how these will be paid for. Here, it pays to think about your adaptation action in business terms.
The Business Model Canvas (BMC) helps you easily define and communicate your adaptation action concept visually. It helps you define a problem and the proposed solutions and implementation processes. It can be used to determine whether an adaptation action should be scaled up or not.
Below is an example from CARE Bangladesh. It shows how the BMC was applied to the problem of low-income communities not having access to safe and reliable water. Source: CARE Bangladesh.
Low Income Communities (LIC) in urban Bangladesh do not have access to safe, reliable and adequate water for domestic consumption.
Municipal authorities do not supply water in the slums as they are out of formal holding tax process. LICs have no choice but to rely on local traders for water at a higher price. To meet domestic needs, women spend 3-4 hours a day in the queue to fetch water and often they face harassment. Limited access to safe water results into various water borne diseases. Lack of water sources in those highly compacted areas, vincreases the risk of fire incidents.
The approximate cost for the establishment of water supply system is USD 5318.75 on an average, if it is solely carried over by CARE project along with community co-financing up to 23-36% (approx. USD 2,133.05) for pipeline networking, electricity connection and others.
But if we go in a private sector partnership approach, then the upfront cost could be minimized in a large scale as there will be installment/ community entrepreneurship. Each system covers 100-150 households.
‘The Water Collective’ is a community managed women friendly solution co-created by CARE in co-financing mechanism to solve out water scarcity of the slums.
The system, where communities have full control, ensured access to safe water 24/7 at a cheater price at their doorsteps.
A group of selective community members voluntarily collects
the fees from households to manage operational costs and maintenance. Remaining balance is being deposited in bank. The water collective has a formal links with the municipal authority for sustainability.
Water cost has been reduced (nearly halved).
According to community, fire incidents are now lower than before.
Water borne diseases get visibly lower.
Incidents of Gender Based Violence has been reduced.
Monthly collection fee
There is a bank account for
the Water Collective where the monthly fees from customers get deposited. A small amount of Interest also came from bank savings.
LIC members getting available safe water at doorsteps in a half price than before.
Finding no way local traders in the neighbouring slums reduce the costs.
Due to collective ownership it is accessible to all. Most importantly by being involved in the system they get rid of the dependency on private water traders.
Actors (municipal authorities and NGOs producers) want to address water crisis and build resilience would find it as a feasible solution which could be scale up easily in collaboration with Private Sector.
Private sector manufacturer/input sellers who wants to increase their market would find the system as an opportunity to sell out water pumps and accessories in instalments which would help minimize upfront costs.
To reach users:
The Key benefit (low cost & availability) attracts the customers from adjacent communities. Additionally, meeting, social gathering, community marketing, group formation is helping to reach users.
To reach Scalers:
National events, advocacy, meeting with private sector, local elected bodies and City Corporations; social networking, blogs, publicity materials etc.
LIC members especially women and girls can access to safe running water at doorsteps. It reduces risk of gender based violence and increases women’s productive time.
It helps women and adolescent girls to maintain their menstrual hygiene.
It reduces the risk of water borne diseases.
It increases the community resilience against fire. The system has fire hydrant inbuilt with hose-pipe to extinguish fire at the very beginning.
Urban Low income community specially women.
Slum dwellers with high dependency on local water traders or surplus water of nearby factories/industries.
Public & private sector • City Corporation
Oriented and skilled staffs
Water management committee
Voluntary labor from community
The model itself
How to access funding to support your adaptation actions
As you learned in Module 6, there is funding available for adaptation actions (although this is still not enough to meet the need).
As a young person with innovative ideas for adaptation actions that need financial support there are various options available:
Apply for grants for young people with innovative adaptation solutions
There are various small grants and competitions available for climate change initiatives led by young people. Some of these are focused on Africa, or the Global South. A few are listed below.
The African Youth Adaptation Solutions Challenge (YouthADAPT Challenge) is an annual competition and awards program for youth-led enterprises (50% women-led). The challenge supports entrepreneurship and youth-led innovation in climate change adaptation and resilience across Africa. Winners receive USD 100,000 in grant funding and join an accelerator program.
The Youth Climate Fund from the Open Collective provides small grants for activities that foster impactful climate actions, activities and events, and can be implemented within 3 months.
The Hey Global Climate Fund assists young climate activists with projects that focus on climate change and health, climate change and gender, climate advocacy and climate entrepreneurship. In 2022, the fund provided three young people with USD 5000 each.
Apply for funding from the Green Climate Fund or Adaptation Fund
You cannot access these funds directly. You will need to be part of a youth organization that can be part of a Green Climate Fund (GCF) or Adaptation Fund (AF) proposal development process led by “accredited entities.” These can be private or public, non-governmental, sub- national, national, regional or international, as long as they meet the GCF’s standards. If you put forward good ideas and make active contributions, the accredited entity might identify you as a credible implementing partner if the proposal is awarded. This would give you an excellent opportunity to implement your suggested activity as a key implementing partner and be provided with the necessary funds to do so.
Tip: To know where in your country proposals are being developed and which accredited entities to approach, you can contact the national focal points for the GCF or AF.
It is good to build a relationship with them so you know exactly what is going on and when. To find out who your focal point is, ask your Ministry of Environment.
Apply for government funds
Governments are an important source of climate finance. Many climate-vulnerable countries have started including resources for climate action in their annual development programs. Do some research into what options are available in your country and what processes you need to go through to apply for funding.
Seek investor funding for your climate change adaptation solution
As you learned in Module 4, young people are turning their innovative adaptation ideas into businesses. If you have developed an adaptation action with business potential, then you can try to secure investor funding.
What investors are looking for
If you have developed a trailblazing adaptation action, you may be so excited that all you can focus on is the smart solution that you’re offering to a climate change problem. But investors will need to know more before they’re willing to invest. They will want to know:
What is the market size for your product? This shows if you can guarantee a return on their investment.
How much traction do you have? And what metrics is this based on? This shows if your product is selling and demonstrates the demand for it.
How is your business governed? This shows how your business is managed and run.
What is the impact and how do you measure this? This indicates if your business aligns with “triple bottom-line success,” which means it benefits people and planet while making profit.
What is your financial model? This helps investors see what returns your business can generate.
What is your competitive advantage? This shows what gives you the edge over your competitors.
Dos and don’ts of engaging with investors
Prepare, practice, update pitches and presentations.
Meet your projections.
Be concise in your communications, but have backup detail ready. Consider and adapt content to your audience.
Network before you start actively seeking capital.
Treat “no” as a feedback and networking opportunity.
Be confident and coachable.
Be upfront about risks, weaknesses—and how to address them. Research and target the most appropriate investors.
Personalize all investor communication.
Lie, be misleading or evasive.
Be overly confident or reject feedback.
Rely on the product or service alone to entice investors. Make up answers.
Expect fundraising to be easy or quick.
Be discouraged by rejection (but do learn from it!). Send mass emails soliciting investment.
Top tip: No matter what source of funding you are trying to secure, you will need to draw up a budget that shows how much money you will need. Take a look at this guide from ASANA.
Deepen your understanding. Find links to supporting scientific research, important publications, and tools
Youth-led climate adaptation actions
READAdapt for Our Future: A Background Paper on Youth and Climate Change Adaptation to understand more about the main drawbacks for effective youth engagement in climate adaptation globally. The paper shows that most National Adaptation Plans and Disaster Risk strategies only recognize young people as beneficiaries, hence making their engagement
in national efforts passive rather than active. The paper proposes a transformation within current institutional structures so that youth-led actions are supported and included in national climate change adaptation strategies.
READ this case study (page 8 of linked document) about young people taking action in Ghana. Young people have been involved with Ghana’s Community Resilience Early Warning (CREW) project, doing risk assessments and updating of risk maps for effective early warning systems. Young people in hazard-prone communities share weather information from the Ghana Meteorological Organization with the broader community during the rainy season. In situations where floods are inevitable, they organize to establish short- term coping mechanisms, such as building makeshift levees with sandbags and clearing drainage systems.
Designing community adaptation actions
WATCH this video to learn more about CARE’s Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) tool and how you can use it to map vulnerabilities in your community.
READ CARE’s CVCA Handbook for the full details on how to conduct participatory activities when designing your Community Adaptation Action Plan.
LEARN how to identify the right milestones and design appropriate indicators for your adaptation actions with this guide, Framework of Milestones and Indicators for Community- Based Adaptation, from CARE.
READ the CARE Planning for Resilience manual for step-by-step guidance on how to do participatory, gender responsive local adaptation planning. It has tools and resources that will help when doing the planning process.
EXPLORE Ashoka’s 4 Levels of Impact model, designed for social entrepreneurs to help define the intended impact of an initiative. Changemaking can occur at multiple “levels” that require different tactics and strategies. For example, if you are focusing on plastic pollution, specifically bottles from drinks, you have many options for where to focus your efforts. The Ashoka model provides structure when planning for what ‘level’ your intended initiative will operate. This helps you identify your change making level and identify the stakeholders you need to collaborate with to achieve your intended impact.
READthis checklist on gender-inclusive actionable agro-advisories to learn about integration of gender in Climate-Information Services work. The checklist aims to assist producers and translators in developing agro-advisories (forecast and forecast based advice) that are gender- inclusive and useful for both men and women farmers.
READ about Participatory Scenario Planning (PSP). This approach uses seasonal climate forecasts to inform decisions for more resilient livelihoods and risk management, thereby strengthening adaptive capacity. PSP workshops create a multi-stakeholder platform for collective interpretation of meteorological and local forecasts and their probability and uncertainty.
EXPLORE the full Adaptation Good Practice Checklist to make sure your adaptation actions meet the criteria for actions that result in quality, impactful and long-term climate resilience for the most vulnerable people.
Examples of young people innovating for climate adaptation
WATCH this video featuring Mariama Mamane, UN Environment Young Champion of the Earth for Africa (2:53). Learn how her initiative offered a three-in-one solution to some of Africa’s biggest environmental problems. Her project uses the water hyacinth, which chokes waterways across the continent, to create sustainable energy and environmentally friendly fertilizers. Mariama, 27, who lives in Burkina Faso, is one of six winners – each representing a region of the world – awarded the new prize by UN Environment and polymer-producing giant Covestro.
WATCH the short film Adaptation Voices (4:00) by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). This film describes how young people are working with local communities in Kenya to scale up local ecological farming techniques to support adaptation. (To hear more from African adaptation experts on the possibilities for accelerating action, including inspiring case studies, visit CDKN).
WATCHChanging Africa’s Narrative (14:00) by TEDx Lusaka. Kelvin Doe talks about the importance of Africans changing their own narrative about the continent. Kelvin Doe is a self-taught Sierra Leonean engineer. A true inventor by age fifteen, Kelvin built his own radio station using discarded scrap metal and electrical items that he found in his hometown. Kelvin finds solutions to problems in his community, for example, making batteries to light homes in Sierra Leone where electricity supply is inconsistent, or building a generator.
WATCHYouth for Climate Action: Breaking Barriers (2:30) by UN Climate Change Learn to get inspired to do more to address climate change. Reuben and Yande, from Zambia, are tired
of inaction. They don’t want to sit idly while the world is facing the climate crisis. Hear their message and take a stand.
Your last stop. Here, you have space to test your knowledge (with a short quiz) and consider how you can apply what you have learned to your own climate action.
Test your understanding
You have learnt a lot and have many red hot ideas. Test your knowledge with a quiz and give yourself space to cool down and reflect on what you have learnt. Use this section to take stock of how you will put your skills into action.
Which of the following combinations are participatory tools you would use to map risks, vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacities in a community?
Correct answer:a) Hazard map, interviews with people and workshops and dialogues with community stakeholders, impact chains tool
EXPLANATION: Community participation is key for developing impactful adaptation actions and plans. Participatory tools help empower communities and give them ownership of adaptation plans and actions. CARE’s Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook provides tools such as the Hazard Map and Impact Chains Tool. You can also interview key community members and host workshops and dialogues.
When developing a Community Adaptation Action Plan, you should check proposed adaptation actions against the ..........(fill in the missing word):
Correct answer:c) Adaptation Good Practice Checklist
EXPLANATION: Whatever adaptation actions you plan to undertake as part of your Community Adaptation Action Plan, it is important to assess them against the Adaptation Good Practice (AGP) checklist. The checklist’s nine criteria help ensure that adaptation results in quality, impactful and long-term climate resilience for the most vulnerable people.
When developing your framework for Monitoring, Learning and Evaluation, the first step is to: (select the correct answer)
Correct answer:c) Develop a results chain
EXPLANATION: Your first step when developing a MEL framework is to develop a results chain. This shows how a particular action will lead to a desired result. The results chain should be accompanied by SMART indicators for your adaptation action(s).
Fill in the blank. When thinking about scaling up your adaptation action, you should check that it is technically feasible, financially viable, socially acceptable and pays attention to................ :
Correct answer:d) Gender dimensions
EXPLANATION: After implementing your adaptation action in its initial stage, and evaluating the outcomes, you might be pleased to see that it has been successful and has potential for scaling up. At this stage, it’s important to consider how the intervention supports effective adaptation. Check to see that your action supports effective climate change adaptation. Consider:
Technical feasibility: can the intervention withstand variations in climate? Can it be easily used by your target community without the need for help from specialists?
Financial viability: is the intervention cost-effective and can it be sustained financially over the short, medium and long term?
Social acceptability: does the intervention disrupt social cohesion or create division among members of a community. If so, how might you build bridges between people and bring people with different opinions together to create a shared understanding of the benefits of the action?
Gender dimensions: does the adaptation action support the agency and wellbeing of women and girls?
Which of the following should you not do when engaging with investors? (select the correct answer)
Correct answer:b) Rely on the product or service alone to entice them
EXPLANATION: When engaging with investors, you will need to show them that you can guarantee a return on investment, have traction in the market, have good governance structures in place for your business, have a sound financial model and a competitive advantage, among other things.
Congratulations You have now completed this module
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Reflect and prepare for your climate adaptation action
Consider the following questions to get you started with developing your own adaptation action plan.
Adaptation needs in your community:
What are the main climate change risks and vulnerabilities in your community?
What climate adaptation actions are already happening to address these?
What gaps exist? Are there actions you think are needed but not being implemented by anyone else?
Partners and participants:
Which organizations, individuals, community groups or institutions are already doing adaptation work in your community? Which of these might you partner with?
Which marginalized groups in your community do you need to include in your adaptation action planning? How can you include them?
What sources of funding are available to support local adaptation actions led by young people in your area? (Do some research to see what’s out there).
How might you access this funding?
If you need to work with a larger youth organization to access funding, how can you
approach them and encourage them to partner with you?
Accredited Entities partner with GCF to implement projects. Accredited Entities can be private or public, non-governmental, sub-national, national, regional or international, as long as they meet the standards of the Fund. Accredited Entities carry out a range of activities that usually include the development of funding proposals and the management and monitoring of projects and programmes. Countries may access GCF resources through multiple entities simultaneously.
Adaptation finance gap refers to difference between the estimated costs of adaptation and the actual number of financial resources needed to support adaptation efforts. The estimated adaptation costs in developing countries are five to ten times greater than current public adaptation finance flows, and the adaptation finance gap is widening.
Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP)
ASAP was launched by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in 2012 to make climate and environmental finance work for smallholder farmers. A multi-year and multi-donor financing window, ASAP provides a new source of co-financing to scale up and integrate climate change adaptation across IFAD’s new investments.
The Adaptation Fund is a global fund established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol and are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. It pioneered Direct Access, empowering countries to access funding and develop projects directly through accredited national implementing entities.
The Cancun Adaptation Framework is a set of guidelines and measures that were established during the UNCCC held in Cancun in 2010.
The CAF aims to strengthen action on adaptation in developing countries through international cooperation. It will support better planning and implementation of adaptation measures through increased financial and technical support, and through strengthening and/or establishing regional centres and networks. The framework will also boost research, assessments and technology cooperation on adaptation, as well as strengthen education and public awareness.
Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
The term "climate change" often refers specifically to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes.
In human systems, climate change adaptation refers to the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, it refers to the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects; human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.
In practical terms, adaptation refers to the changes people and institutions make to adjust to observed or projected changes in climate. It is an ongoing process that aims to reduce vulnerability to climate change.
Retrieved from: CARE (2019).
Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook: careclimatechange.org/cvca/
Climate crisis is a term increasingly being used by UN agencies, scientists, media and civil society organizations to better reflect the urgency and the severity of the emergency we are facing. It reflects the fact that the climate is changing as a result of human behavior, and that it has and will have dramatic effects on women, men, girls and boys and their environment.
Climate Finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions that will address climate change.
Climate Funds Update is an independent website that provides information and data on the growing number of multilateral climate finance initiatives designed to help developing countries address the challenges of climate change.
Climate information refers to the collection and interpretation of observations of the actual weather and climate as well as simulations of climate in both past and future periods. Climate information is the collection and interpretation of weather and climate data that is credible, relevant and usable.
CIS involve the provision of climate information in a way that assists decision making by individuals and organizations. They are tools and processes that enable decision makers and user communities to assess, and prevent or prepare for, potential impactful weather and climate events.
Climate Justice is about a future in which the poorest and most marginalized people have significantly improved their wellbeing and can enjoy their human rights due to increased resilience to climate change, increased equality and a global temperature rise that is limited to 1.5°C.
Evidence-based analysis conducted to identify 1) the extent to which a human, social and/or ecological system has been or will likely be affected by climate variability and change, and 2) strategies to address these impacts.
Climate-Smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes—cropland, livestock, forests and fisheries — that address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change.
Community-based adaptation is a set of climate change adaptation activities developed in partnership with at-risk communities to promote local awareness of, and appropriate and sustainable solutions to, current and future climatic conditions.
The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP, at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.
The Heads of State of the East African Community (EAC) directed the EAC Secretariat to develop a Climate Change Policy and strategies to address the adverse impacts of Climate Change in the region and harness any potential opportunities posed by Climate Change in the context of the principle of sustainable development.
The overall objective of the EAC Climate Change Policy is to guide Partner States and other stakeholders on the preparation and implementation of collective measures to address Climate Change in the region while assuring sustainable social and economic development.
This Framework is prepared to provide the effective delivery of adaptation services to the most climate vulnerable areas and people of Nepal. It supports the design of new and implementation of existing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) that have already been designed and piloted. It is expected to help integrate climate adaptation and resilience aspects in local and national plans.
The direct effects of climate change that can be observed by rising maximum and/or minimum temperatures, rising sea levels, ocean temperature, changing rainfall patterns, increase in (heavy) precipitation, glacier melting, heatwaves, cyclones, drought, etc. and that in return lead to more climate related hazards. The effects of these changes on humans and natural environment can be seen in e.g. increased hunger and poverty as a result from failed harvest due to droughts/extreme rain; Health risks as a result from heatwaves; Increased pests from change in temperature; Loss of biodiversity, as flora and fauna cannot adapt to a new climate reality; Reduction in fish from coral bleaching as a result from ocean acidification.
Exposure is “the presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental functions, services, and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected”.
Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality does not mean that women and men will become the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female.
Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.
Strategies applied in program planning, assessment, design, implementation and M&E to consider gender norms and to compensate for gender-based inequalities. For example, when a project conducts a gender analysis and incorporates the results into its objectives, work plan and M&E plan, it is undertaking a gender integration process.
Adaptation can be incremental (making step-changes in the way people act but maintaining the system) or transformative (serving to fundamentally change system attributes). Gender-transformative approaches create opportunities for individuals to actively challenge existing gender norms, promote positions of social and political influence for women, and address power inequalities between persons of different genders.
Goals are the specification of what an advocacy initiative should accomplish. Goals need to be SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound. They should clearly state what will change, who will make that change, by how much, and when. When goals are poorly articulated or ambiguous, it can be difficult to understand what the advocacy initiative is trying to achieve, to maintain focus and to evaluate efforts.
GCF is a unique global platform to respond to climate change by investing in low-emission and climate-resilient development. GCF was established by 194 governments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, and to help vulnerable societies adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Given the urgency and seriousness of this challenge, GCF is mandated to make an ambitious contribution to the united global response to climate change.
The atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming and climate change. The major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20). Less prevalent --but very powerful -- greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
Hazard is a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon and/or human activity, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Integrated risk management law and policy (IRM) checklist
This checklist can be used as a basis for advocacy strategies aiming to integrate Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Ecosystem Management and Restoration into laws, policies and their implementation on the ground.
IPCC is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC was created to provide policymakers with regular scientific assessments on climate change, its implications and potential future risks, as well as to put forward adaptation and mitigation options
The Joint Principles for Adaptation (JPA) is a statement by civil society organizations from across the world on what they consider to be a benchmark for good adaptation planning and implementation. It is a tool for ensuring that national policies and plans meet the needs and fulfil the rights of the most vulnerable people to adapt to climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that was adopted on 11 December 1997. Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets.
The LDCF is enabling Least Developed Countries to prepare for a more resilient future. LDCF funding helps recipient countries address their short-, medium- and long-term resilience needs and reduce climate change vulnerability in priority sectors and ecosystems.
LDCF backing helps countries implement National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) – country-driven strategies for addressing their most urgent adaptation needs. It also supports the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process, and the Least Developed Country work program under the UNFCCC.
This Framework is prepared to provide the effective delivery of adaptation services to the most climate vulnerable areas and people of Nepal. It supports the design of new and implementation of existing Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) that have already been designed and piloted. It is expected to help integrate climate adaptation and resilience aspects in local and national plans.
LLA allows an approach of empowerment of the different local stakeholders through the implementation of different tools for participatory planning, consensual decision making, accountability and integration of local and scientific knowledge, as well as capacity building by prioritizing local stakeholders. Thus, it is important to understand that local stakeholders better understand their problems and the actions to prioritize in order to solve them. In this sense, locally-led adaptation allows power to be shifted to local stakeholders while they are accompanied by external actors to alleviate the burden of responsibility for adaptation, in order to catalyze effective, equitable and transparent adaptation. Locally-led adaptation, unlike other more common participatory approaches, goes beyond the involvement of local stakeholders and only occurs when they have control over the development and adaptation processes. For CARE, this approach is equivalent to the CBA.
Loss and damage is a general term used in UN climate negotiations to refer to the consequences of climate change that go beyond what people can adapt to, or when options exist but a community doesn’t have the resources to access or make use of them.
Monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL) practices have the purpose of applying knowledge gained from evidence and analysis to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and, ultimately, the outcomes and impact of their projects/initiatives and ensure accountability for the resources used to achieve them.
The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) is a process that was established under the Cancun Adaptation Framework (CAF). It enables Parties to formulate and implement national adaptation plans (NAPs) as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address those needs. It is a continuous, progressive and iterative process that follows a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach.
NAPAs provide a process for the least-developed countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change - those needs for which further delay could increase vulnerability or lead to increased costs at a later stage. The rationale for NAPAs rests on the limited ability of the LDCs to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. In the NAPA process, prominence is given to community-level input as an important source of information, recognizing that grassroots communities are the main stakeholders.
National Communication is a report that each country that is a Party to the UNFCCC must submit. These reports highlight development priorities, objectives and national circumstances, including ongoing action and needs for meeting adaptation and mitigation goals and the
objectives of the Convention. Parties are required to submit their first NC within three years of entering the Convention, and every four years thereafter.
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are climate action plans to cut emissions and adapt to climate impacts. Each Party to the Paris Agreement is required to establish an NDC and update it every five years.
Nature-based solutions are actions to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural and modified ecosystems in ways that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, to provide both human well-being and biodiversity benefits
Objectives are specific and measurable targets that must be achieved in order to realize the broader goals. These objectives are concrete and medium-term and provide a clear direction for the organization and individuals in achieving the goal.
The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.
The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.
PESTLE stands for: Political, Economic, Social Technological, Legal and Environmental factors or trends.
It is helpful to break down the process of undertaking a context analysis into manageable chunks using a PESTLE analysis. This tool promotes a systematic understanding of the wider environment. It can also help to identify new issues and opportunities on the horizon; to create scenarios; and to develop a coherent vision.
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience is a program that supports developing countries and regions in building their adaptation and resilience to the impacts of climate change. First, the PPCR assists governments in integrating climate resilience into strategic development planning across sectors and stakeholder groups. Second, it provides concessional and grant funding to put the plans into action and pilot innovative public and private sector solutions.
Primary targets are the people who have the power to make the changes needed to achieve the advocacy objectives. They are often known as decision-makers. It is vital to know who makes the decisions so as not to waste time or resources targeting the wrong people.
Problem Trees are graphic tools that helps find solutions by mapping out the anatomy of cause and effect around an issue in a similar way to a Mind Map, but with more structure. The policy-related problem or issue is written in the centre of the flip chart and becomes the trunk of the tree. The causes and consequences of the focal problem become the roots. The question of ‘why’ an issue is a problem needs to be repeatedly asked to find the root cause.
Non-hazardous waste material that cannot be re-used or recycled and needs to be sent to energy recovery (incineration/biogas) or disposal (landfill)
Resilience is the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions through risk management.
Resilience is the capacity to deal with shocks and stresses, manage risks and transform lives and systems in response to new hazards.
Results chains are a visual tool for showing what a project is doing and why. They explain all the links in the chain from project actions to market actor changes, through to impacts on target groups, in detail, for a particular intervention. They can be used to monitor change and adapt strategy on an ongoing basis.
Risk is “the potential for adverse consequences where something of value is at stake and where the occurrence and degree of an outcome is uncertain.” Risk is a function of vulnerability, exposure and the likelihood of a hazard occurring.
Secondary targets are individuals or groups who have the potential to influence or persuade the primary target, who may be difficult to reach or persuade directly.
Secondary targets could be people to whom the primary target is accountable, advisors, local government officials, media, public opinion, personal contacts, celebrities, or academics. By persuading these secondary targets, the hope is that they can then influence the primary target to change their stance or take a desired action.
The Special Climate Change Fund is a fund that is established under the Convention in 2001 to finance projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. It is managed by the GEF.
SDGs are seventeen global goals, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The SDGs provide a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future and are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The UNFCCC is an international treaty that entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 198 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention. Preventing “dangerous” human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC.
In the context of climate change, vulnerability refers to the potential for negative effects resulting from the impacts of climate change. Vulnerability to the same risks may differ based on gender, wealth, mobility and other factors. It is influenced by adaptive capacity; the higher the adaptive capacity, the lower the vulnerability.